Kersten 2015

Kersten, P., McCambridge, A.,Kayes, N., Theadom, A., &McPherson, K. M. (2015). Bridging the gap between goal intentions and actions: a systematic review in patient populations. Disability and Rehabilitation, 37(7), 563-570

Contact corresponding author: Nicola Kayes


Purpose: To evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of if-then implementation intentions (if-then plans) in adult patient populations. Outcomes of interest included adherence, goal pursuit and physical health outcomes.
Methods: Keywords were used to search electronic databases without date or language restrictions (up to 30 April 2014). Studies were included if they (1) concerned a patient population; (2) used if-then plans as a sole intervention or as part of treatment, therapy or rehabilitation; (3) if they were randomised controlled trials. The Pedro scale was used to evaluate study quality. Guidance as set out by the Cochrane Collaboration was used. Two reviewers independently extracted data, discrepancies were discussed and if required referred to a third reviewer.
Results: In total, 18 of the 2141 articles were identified as potentially relevant and four studies of people with epilepsy, chronic back pain, stroke and obesity met the inclusion criteria. People who form if-then plans achieved better outcomes on epilepsy and stroke medication adherence and physical capacity than controls.
Conclusions: Of the four studies that used an if-then plan, only one (people with epilepsy) looked at the intervention as a stand-alone strategy. Further research needs to explore if this simple approach improves rehabilitation outcomes and is a helpful and feasible strategy for people experiencing disabilities.